Our Work

Soil Management: Last Chance to Review the Draft ANSI A300 Standard

Tomorrow is the last day for public comment, so if you care for trees, take a look at the new draft of the US Standard Part 2 and see how it can lead to new services to sell and new ways to care for the entire tree.

This draft is written in user-unfriendly language but it’s worth the effort.  What do you see that confirms what you are doing already?  What do you NOT see that belongs in there?

A300 standards are described as “performance parameters established by industry consensus as a rule for the measure of extent, quality, quantity, value or weight used to write specifications.”    All treatments and materials that are reasonable to use on soil should get fair value and weight in this standard.

Terms used in the body that are unfamiliar or uncertain to many readers should be defined.  Suggestions:

Auger:  (ISA) tool that bores holes in wood or other materials while carrying cuttings away from the bored hole


Berm (A300 82.5)  Soil added above grade for a specified purpose, such as a planting bed or a barrier.


Biological conrol:  (ISA)  method of managing plant pests or weeds through the use of natural predators, parasites, or pathogens….”  *This applies to soil too:  Add “biological control methods should be preferred.”


Biology:  (Wikipedia) is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution.


calcareous soil  (OSU) soil that contains free calcium carbonate; requires substantial elemental sulfur to alter soil pH of calcareous soils on a field scale.


Mulch 20.24 mulch: A material applied to the soil surface to protect the soil surface, deter erosion, moderate soil temperature, conserve moisture, inhibit weeds and improve soil structure AND BIOLOGY.  Soil requires life.  This need is so basic that the need to manage it should be acknowledged.  Adding compost is mentioned briefly, to improve structure only.  There are other materials used.

Mycorrhiza: (ISA) symbiotic association between certain fungi and the roots of a plant….delete “symbiotic”, or define it, or change it to “mutual”:  mutualism: association between organisms of two different species in which each benefits.

Using symbiosis would require Parasite:  organism living in or on another living organism (host) from which it derives nourishment to the detriment of the host, sometimes killing the host. Contrast with epiphyte and saprophyte…


Root collar (A300 82.20)  transition zone from the FLARE to the roots, where the buttress roots divide.

Change from “trunk” for clarity and to conform with Part 8.


Root curtain  (ZTV)  a material applied after excavation to prevent soil damage from drying and other damage

Soil:  (Wikipedia) Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. (ISA) surface layers of sand, clay, silt, and organic material on the surface of the earth that support LIVING plants…”  Soil holds up dead trees too.  “Living” is needed.

Soil aeration  (ISA) improving soil structure to increase air movement.

Soil biology  the living components of the soil, including fungus, bacteria, and animals.

The ISA definitions below should be added here and in the body, so all users can understand what soil assessment requires.

soil auger (1) device for removing cores of soil for inspecting or testing. SEE PROBE  (2) device (drill bit) used to drill holes in the soil for vertical mulching or for the drill-hole method of fertilizing. See earth aug…
soil horizon layer or zone of the soil profile with physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that differ from adjacent layers….
soil particle smallest grains of soil categorized by size into clay, silt, or sand….
soil probe any one of a number of instruments used to take soil cores or samples. Usually some variation of a metal tube with a sharpened or serrated point and a T-shaped handle….SEE AUGER
soil profile vertical section through the soil and all of the soil horizons….
soil reaction pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a soil….


Soil replacement (ZTV) removing and replacing soil to improve growing conditions.  **A300 does not currently acknowledge the practice of soil replacement.**

Soil structure Soil classification characteristic of how soil particles bind together (aggregate), creating voids between the aggregates. **Particles bind together as the result of biological activity.**

If changes are not made, this standard will ignore the biological essence of the soil, and devalue the work of those who aim to build soil biology!

The door on public comment slams shut September 25.   Soil is not dead. Speak out for the life in the soil that gives life to the trees!


  1. Download the A300 Part 2 Soil Management revision draft **above** on the A300 Standards and Current Projects page.
  2. See the instructions at the bottom of the current projects page on how to make comments. The instructions include a notice that the commenter needs to be logged into the TCIA website in order to make comments.
  3. Click the button to log in (or click “Create a New Account” to register for a TCIA account), go to the web form, and make comments.

Please note: You may provide comments directly to your A300 Committee representative if you do not need an official response from the ANSI-accredited A300 Committee. Visit the A300 Committee roster on the TCIA website for a list of your representatives.


Give Trees a Chance! Veteran Tree Care

After recent trainings in Singapore and Queensland, I was asked to share one of the presentations.  This 2014 webinar contains the same basic information, though the references to the US standard (recently revised with no incorporation of international standards and practices) are anachronistic.

 A CEU test on the material is also available.

“In the third session of The Canopy webinar series, consulting arborist Guy Meilleur discusses how decay in older trees can be managed by inspection, treatment and monitoring by following the German ZTV, TRAQ, and the ANSI A300 tree inspection standards. Meilleur also addresses techniques for advancing compartmentalization and documenting strength gain over time as trees adapt to their environment and management adapts to the trees.”

The Canopy: Valuing and Managing Veteran Trees from MSUES CTO – Distance Education on Vimeo.



Tree Appraisal: Misguiding and Devaluing

Do you care about the value of trees, and how it is calculated?  Then you need to read this.

Tree value has been appraised in the US for over 100 years.  In my 25 years of performing this service for tree owners, I’ve found it difficult, but satisfying, to calculate the cost of repairing tree damage and replacing lost trees for tree owners who have suffered a loss.

Now comes a draft of the Guide that would change the industry, at the expense of veteran arborists and of tree owners.  Coincidentally, an effort is underway to certify tree appraisers, at the same time that the Guide is being rewritten to allow unqualified people to gain this certification.

11 of my peers and superiors in tree appraisal (list at the end) are unanimous that the current draft of the 10th edition lowers tree values unreasonably and forces appraisers to pretend they know about forestry and real estate and the law.  If this draft is approved, experienced appraisers with competence will be pushed down to the level of wannabes.  Tree owners will suffer the most.

Please listen to the concerns of these veteran arborists, and let these groups know that you do not want tree valuation to be trashed by the lust to dumb down the practice just to make money:  AmericanHort,
• American Society of Consulting Arborists
• American Society of Landscape Architects
• Association of Consulting Foresters of America
• International Society of Arboriculture
• National Association of Landscape Professionals
• Tree Care Industry Association

If you value the contributions that trees provide to our world, this matters to you!

Appraisal guide PAVC 10th review for general distribution

International Tree Care Standards: Why are they so different?

The UK’s tree care standard BS3998 has been in force since 1966.  Germany’s ZTV  since 1981, and the US’s A300 Part 1 since 1991.   British and German cultures have a longer history of managing mature trees than the US.  The regions and legal systems and the trees themselves are similar, and the tree care standards also have some similarities.   A brief comparison on pruning mature trees might indicate more opportunities for harmonization:


US:ANSI A300 Part 1 Germany:  ZTV UK:  BS3998
Informative text (not normative/’standard’) included for clarity Excluded from the body; in annexes or saved for ISA BMP Included in the body, italicized Included in the body, italicized
Guidance on reduction pruning 6 lines Several pages (example below) Several pages (example below)
“Regeneration” aka

“Retrenchment” ?

No “Promote secondary (reiterative) crown” … “Main solution to prevent failure”…
“Heading cut” used? Yes, with 3 definitions No No
Size of reduction cuts: Required,  recommended, or suggested? Suggested:Small cuts “should be preferred” Recommended

Should not exceed 4”

Required with exceptions; exceed 4” only under specialcircumstances


German Normative Guidance  www.fll.de/shop/baume-und-geholze/ztv-baumpflege.html

“On young trees, the goal of pruning is to direct their outward growth and development. On mature trees, pruning preserves health, safety, and function for as long as possible.


To regenerate a tree’s crown, trees that are showing dieback should be cut back to an inner crown. Individual branches should be reduced. When reducing the entire crown don’t go over 20%.  Heavy sprouting after damage should be thinned or reduced.  Make the cuts above the old pruning wounds.  Develop a secondary crown using reiterations.


Maintain features that are characteristic to the individual tree.

Branches greater than 4 inch diameter should not be removed.  Large cuts less than 4 inches on poorly compartmentalizing species should also be avoided.  Consider reducing the limb.


British Normative Guidance BS3998

After crown reduction, there should be a strong framework of healthy small-diameter branches and twigs (leaf-bearing structure), capable of producing dense leaf cover during  the following growing season. Each tree should first be assessed to decide how much and where to cut

A crown should normally be reduced in proportion to its original shape, so as to avoid altering the balance of the tree as a whole… The  shape of the crown can be changed if there is a specific need to do so, e.g. for biomechanical integrity.  During crown reduction, unlike topping, the cuts should not exceed 4” diameter except on very large trees.  Etc…


According to the ISA, the ANSI A300 standard fits with its “special companion Best Management Practices booklets. The ANSI A300 standards represent the industry consensus on performing tree care operations.”   A300 may be the dominant standard for the US industry, but it seems to leave out common practices in the international industry.  


ANSI directs the A300 group to incorporate an international perspective:  “Standards… Developers are encouraged to consult any relevant international or regional guides that may impact the proposed standard.”


The A300 group only agreed “To review and incorporate changes in industry standard practices, as appropriate, since the approval of the current standard. Harmonization with related industry standards will be considered.”  

This wording does not align with A300’s assigned responsibility to be a global partner, and limits A300’s usefulness as a reference for an international BMP.

ANSI does not encourage the A300 group to consider harmonization, but to actively harmonize.


Are operations other than pruning incorporated? No, 10 other Parts are separated into different publications Support, Contracting, Habitat, Diagnosis, Root and Soil Care… Support, Contracting, Habitat, Diagnosis, Root and Soil Care…


The 11 separate-but-overlapping volumes of A300 make this difficult, and the need for combining these should be acted upon sooner rather than later.  But with the deadline for comment October 2nd, the more urgent action is to comment on the draft and encourage A300 to consult and harmonize with relevant international standards.


“Scope summary: A300 (Part 1) Pruning standards provide acceptable industry performance parameters and an industry standard specification writing guide for pruning of trees, shrubs, and other woody plants. ..”  

By consulting international standards, the A300 group can “provide acceptable industry performance parameters and an industry standard specification writing guide.”  Without a wider perspective, Part 1’s parameters restrict the performance and competitiveness of a growing number of experienced arborists in the US.

Practices that are proven by long experience to be acceptable elsewhere in the world and compatible with tree health, value and stability are put at a significant disadvantage in the US.  This disadvantage is worsened when they are omitted from the ISA BMP.


Tree workers and managers who communicate or travel between the US and other countries lose time and effectiveness while adapting to different tree care standards.  Technology transfer across borders is inhibited.  With more consistency among tree care standards and practices, the international arboricultural industry can advance.


If the A300 group chooses not to harmonize with international guidance, the wording in their standard should reflect that limitation, such as:  1 ANSI A300 standards 1.1 Scope ANSI A300 performance standards cover the care and management of trees, shrubs, palms and other woody landscape plants **in the USA**. 1.2 Purpose ANSI A300 standards are intended for the development of work practices, written specifications, best practices, regulations and other measures of performance **in the USA**. ..

1.3 Application ANSI A300 standards shall apply to any person or entity engaged in the management of trees, shrubs, palms, or other woody plants **in the USA**, including federal, state or local agencies, utilities, arborists, consultants, arboricultural or landscape firms, and managers or owners of property.”


Added language to the next draft that includes common practices like mature tree reduction, vine and shrub care, etc. is not only possible, but necessary to meet A300’s aspirations to represent industry consensus.  So comment today to Bob Rouse, rrouse@tcia.org


US Pruning and Tree Risk: Proposed Standards. 35 days left to comment!

Here are the draft copies of the US Pruning and Tree Risk Standards. Lots of good in there, but less comprehensive than the more traditional English and German Standards.  Only 35 days left to comment, or forever hold your peace!
Compartmentalization Happens!
Compartmentalization Happens!

Here, an epicormic sprout slows decay.  Further down, endocormic sprouts can stop decay.

Managing Mature Willow Oaks in Burlington, NC

We were called in to a long established neighborhood in Burlington, NC to help achieve two tree management objectives:

  • Minimize liability and expense by using an inventory with specifications.
  • Maximize volume, value, beauty, and benefits.

We completed a full inventory of the street-side trees in 2012 and wrote specifications for how they could be managed. You can see our inventory through the link below:

Burlington W Davis Street – Inventory and Specifications 120420

The slideshow below summarizes our work at this Burlington neighborhood, including: job history, flare & root inspection, pruning specifications, and options for addressing abnormalities.

Managing Mature Willow Oaks: Minimizing inputs and maximizing returns in Burlington, NC

We monitored the site in 2016, three years after pruning was completed. The objective was accomplished.

Retrenching Hollow Trees for Life



‘Lower crown filling in nicely:  This white oak, Quercus alba sports 2 years growth of new secondary branches after a 10’ reduction using a 1.5” cut.’  A potential future reduction to this point is also guided by change in taper.




‘Retrenching’ has been used in relation to trees and their care since the 1700’s.  Dictionary definitions include: To live at less expenses; To confine, limit or restrict; To cut off, pare away; To reinforce.   In the UK standard, “Retrenchment pruning is a phased form of crown reduction…whereby the crown of a declining tree retains its overall biomechanical integrity by…development of the lower crown (retrenchment)… shortening heavy, long or weakened branches throughout the crown, while retaining as much leaf area as possible and encouraging the development of new secondary branches…”1


Regenerating a smaller crown is the goal, so the German (ZTV) standard calls it “Regenerative Pruning:  Trees showing significant signs of aging in the outer parts of the crown and the development of a secondary crown are to be cut back as far as necessary (crown reduction)…with safety requirements and/or the surrounding tree environment.  If necessary, areas surrounding the sections that have been reduced may require thinning to establish symmetry (and light penetration to inner foliage).The extent…is specifically dependent on the species and growth habit, and shall be less than 20%…. Form a secondary (reiterative) crown over time.” 2   Identifying and preserving the natural ‘habitus’ or architecture comes first in the ZTV.  This process was spelled out in 1999’s Pruning with the Laws of Nature3, a hybridization of Japanese, bonsai and European techniques.


Meanwhile, globetrotting arborist Henry Davis III was back in the US after visiting those same regions.  Davis applied a similar synthesis to managing hollow historic trees in Boston, MA.  Tree Care Industry magazine published his work on Structural Pruning, a merger of Niwaki tradition with European awareness of physiological and ecological systems, in 1998.  Davis’ pruning specifications for hollow historic trees include:


Objectives:  Safety, Survival, Aesthetics

Inspect hollow tree structure closely, and at a distance.  Consider supplemental support systems.  Locate dominant leaders, and an ‘inner crown’ to regenerate.

Choose 4-10 large branches that could be reduced or removed.

Start pruning from the top down, heaviest side first, tips last.

Retain dead lower branches except for safety or sanitation.


Definitions and parameters for retrenchment pruning are well established, so “Tree risk assessors should resist the ultimate security of …tree removal and consider possibilities for retaining trees… trees in natural settings may reconfigure…sometimes called ‘natural retrenchment’. They may continue to grow trunk diameter while branches die and fail—reducing overall height of the tree and increasing stability… tree risk assessors can imitate this process by recommending crown reduction.” 4 Templates for retrenchment specifications, based on successful results with many species, are tools for Valuing and Managing Veteran Trees, a training program coming to the US in October 2014.  Until this knowledge becomes more familiar, arborists who have been taught little more than “Heading cuts are bad, collar cuts are good.” might still wonder:  Is retrenchment pruning the same as ‘topping’?




Retains enough foliage to maintain tree health Removes too much foliage, starving the tree


Releases gradual sprouting from interior nodes Forces panic sprouting internodally or near wounds



Sprouts from dormant (preexisting) buds, well attached by flaring at base Endocormic



Sprouts from adventitious (newly formed) buds, weakly attached, no flaring


Smaller wounds where tree can compartmentalize Large wounds at poor locations, causing rapid decay


On young trees, the objective is advancing the growth and development of the crown. Young trees get big fast when permanent branches get cut back to a lateral large enough to assume apical dominance (at least 1/3 diameter).  ‘Heading’ cuts to internodes, small laterals or buds are avoided.

On old trees, the objective is to maximize contributions and minimize risk and expense.

Old trees, outward growth and apical dominance extends lever arms and increases risk.  Interior growth is the objective.  Cuts to small laterals and buds often work better.  If the lateral remaining is <1/3, “it should be fairly upright…Old trees that are of low vigor and have failing branches can often be kept healthy and attractive by removing the weak-growing and dying limbs in their extremities, particularly their tops.”5

It doesn’t take much—a 15% reduction can increase stability by 50%, in trees6 and branches7.  Thinking in ‘tree time’, arborists avoid snap judgments, apply age-appropriate guidelines, and conserve historic trees.

“Tree Masters” arborist interacts with veteran oak, using body and hands to learn where and how much to prune.  Courtesy Tradmastarna.se


Retrenchment is not restoration,“selective pruning to redevelop structure, form and appearance of … trees” 8.  Retrenchment means the tree will develop a new, smaller structure, in effect a big bonsai.  Dr. Ed Gilman once said: “In Sweden, 600 to 800 year old trees have been reduced for hundreds of years. They have 4 or 5 foot trunks-some even larger – with 4 inches shell wall.  We remove too many trees and prune too few!”, so I watched arborists working in Sweden’s Royal Botanic Garden to see how this was done.  The old oak was in a high-traffic area, and festooned with Phellinus conks.  The specification, as translated, was to reduce the crown by roughly one meter (3.3 feet) and take the ‘whip’ out of it.  The climbers used their bodies to move the branches, and reckoned the points where they bent were natural pruning targets.  Then they felt around these locations with their hands for the taper, where the cut would be as small as it could be.  One conk, heavy as a bowling ball, was kicked off by a climber and passed around by a passing tour group.  The group was quick to grasp the information that arborists were helping the tree grow downward.


Informational text is italicized and included within the European standards, easing access for users. Both standards discourage cuts over 4”, a criterion based on substantial research and practice. While the ZTV makes extensive use of illustrations, the standard in Taichung, Taiwan classically merges science and art:


X means bad.  The lower progression shows very light reduction in the first step, triggering interior growth, and retrenching into a smaller, denser canopy over time.   Followup pruning needs are minimized.  Tree health and structure are maximized.


Retrenchment pruning is a form of directional pruning.  It follows acceptable standards when the objective is established, the requirements are met, and specifications are communicated in a way that workers can use. For example, if the objective is “Post oak 6’ wide at base, ~5’ hollow, root damage:  Increase health and value over time, lower cost, risk, and load.”, specifications or mitigation options could fit on a 3×5 card:


  1. Remove outer dead branches >1” diameter
  2. Reduce sprawling leaders. Cuts <3” to uprights, <8% total foliage
  3. Reduce downward and horizontal branches. Clear growth below by 2’-4’. <4% total
  4. Thin crowded branches. <2” cuts, <3% total
  5. Smallest cut possible, near vigorous growth or buds.
  6. Start 3’ from the trunk to 20’: make holes >2” wide, 18”apart, >12” deep. Force 50% expanded aggregate and 50% specified soil conditioner under pressure into the holes. Irrigate.   Mulch 2” woodchips.


The Objective directs the specified actions.  There is no need for  “type or method of pruning “or “type of cut” .  The key components are delivered in the specification.   A simple process using simple terms yields simple specifications. According to TCI magazine (May 2014), A300 “Pruning standards provide acceptable industry performance parameters”, and during the current revision they will “review and incorporate changes in industry standard practices… Harmonization with related industry standards will be considered.”

We and our trees are related to more experienced people and trees overseas. Speculation that pruning cannot reduce risk to an acceptable level lacks substance, and ignores many examples to the contrary. It’s only natural to harmonize with streamlined, inclusive approaches to tree pruning.  Specification writing can become a habit, by practicing a simple process that meets a clear objective set by a competent assessment.



  • Located between a school and electric transmission lines, retrenchment pruning was prescribed for this eucalyptus. Images courtesy Cassian Humphries



Considering risk and mitigation measures, tree risk assessors should communicate the benefits of trees as well as the consequences of losing them.  Guidelines should be considered a starting point and should be modified as needed so that they are appropriate for the tree and site. While ‘likelihood of failure’ guidelines are presented …it is essential to consider all of the aggravating factors as well as any mitigating factors such as adaptive growth in the tree.”3, such as the trunk flaring out at the base.

The concave areas between the buttress roots, the sinuses, are often wounded by included bark as expanding buttress roots collide.  Insects and fungi colonizing these sinuses often warrant simple IPM treatments, such as cleaning and drying. Tree structure is supported by buttresses, so sinus problems are typically not structural problems. Buttresses can function as independent segments with separate vascular streams.  Overstating strength loss from decay skews conclusions toward removal.  So does exaggerating the need for future care, and misjudging occupancy in target ratings.


People naturally lower occupancy when failures are more likely–by getting out of the rain and wind. They have a harder time understanding the nature of hollow trees, and managing risk.  Numbers are proposed: if less than 30% of the trunk diameter is sound wood, trees could be considered a high risk.  However, there is no data for applying this rule to trees >36”dbh.  It also ignores height, exposure, species, condition, and many other factors. “The ratio t/R <.3 can no longer be used by itself as an index of trunk failure potential. Trees can tolerate extremely large amounts of internal decay without necessarily incurring adverse effects on their stability.”9 Physicist Frank Rinn, developer of decay detection tools, calls overreliance on formulas “Voodoo”.   Trees shed their taproots, and their heartwood, naturally.  Hollowing recycles waste products, and sheds weight.  Wood decay fungi are associates, unless they are proven pathogens.  In Asia and Europe, hollow trees are revered, and celebrated as tourist attractions.



North Americans also value and manage a growing number of veteran trees, by appreciating their strength.  “Hollowing increases flexibility.  Tubes are very strong structures.”   Researcher Karl Niklas cites these facts to plug “very large gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanical behavior of trees…Conclusions from research into the science of mechanics are severely limited by simplifications and assumptions Niklas admits.  Tree management decisions can be based on more reliable criteria, and more direct sources of data.   A broader scope, and deeper inspection of tree physiology and structure, produce more perceivable, reliable information.

Structural inspections are forensic in nature, following chronological order.  First identifying the genetically determined architecture3, it proceeds to the growth beyond that skeleton, to the tree’s response to its environment, to the land around, to the feel and smell of the soil.  After understanding how the tree is built, and adapting, inspect for potential failure points.  Feel the tree’s response growth to decay, the outward signs of “Wall 4, a much stronger,more localized version of Wall 2… continuous around every growth ring, and from the top to bottom of the tree.”, in the system that in 1977 Dr. Alex Shigo called “CODIT, the Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees.  When the system is learned, it will act as the code for understanding a wide variety of defects on most tree species…”  Arborists who learn this code will have “a better opportunity to regulate and control decay.”10  Shigo demonstrated the strength and growth of Wall 4, and woundwood.  Our assessments must factor in that phenomenon.   By mitigating conditions below ground to increase CODIT, and pruning to lessen distances, apical control, inoculum and load, we can to some extent regulate and control decay


The Wager Tree at 2013’s Biomechanics Week had huge ribs of woundwood around an ugly hollow long and deep into a red maple tree that faced the road.  About 40 researchers and technicians marked the spots where they reckoned it would fail during a pull test.  The majority of the bets were clustered around compression side of the pull, where the cavity was most open.  Under 4.5 kilonewtons of pull, the tree visibly failed on the tension side: first above the cavity, then at a mower-damaged tension root.  After the brush was cut off, it zipped itself back together as it was pushed back up.  Self-grafting around these splits, and other response growth, will be documented before the next Biomechanics Week.  As Dr. Gilman also noted, “We know next to nothing about tree biomechanics.”, so speculation is limited, in proportion to our limitations.  ollow the tree’s direction.

When asked “How can this tree be pruned so it is safer?” arborists are trained to say what they will NOT do:  top the tree, or make “heading cuts”. But big collar cuts can be far worse than a small ‘heading’ cut to a small lateral or a bud.  Later on, risk assessors might measure the hollows at big pruning wounds, apply a formula riddled by simplifications and assumptions, and condemn the tree. Published guidance on pruning older trees is scarce in the US, so one must look abroad.  The German ZTV standard costs 20 euros ($28USD) and contains comprehensive guidance on pruning, support, business contracting, and more.  To provide acceptable parameters for our industry, the A300 Standard might also look abroad. Arborists in North America continue performing, recording and presenting their tree preservation work, to support our industry’s evolution, and harmonize with the rest of the world.







  1. BS 3998: 2010 Tree Work—Recommendations British Standards Institute
  2. ZTV Baumpflege…German Guidelines for Tree Care www.fll.de/shop 2007
  3. Geholzschnitt: nach den Gesetzen der Natur, Pfisterer, Jochen. Ulmer, Eugen, 1999                                              4. Best Management Practices on Tree Risk Assessment,  ISA (page 43)
  4. Arboriculture: The Integrated Management of Trees, Shrubs and Vines Harris et al
  5. How Hollow may a Tree be? Neue Landschaft 11/96 p. 847-850
  6. Risk Assessment Criteria for Branch failure, Goodfellow, John 2009, BioCompliance Consulting
  7. ANSI A300 Tree Care Standard, Part 1 Pruning Tree Care Industry Association
  8. Foundations of Tree Risk Analysis Bond, Jerry, Arborist News, ISA June 2006
  9. Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees, Shigo, Alex L., Agric. Inf. Bull. 405, USDA 1977

Trees and Social Justice in Durham NC

Social justice is often raised in relation to trees, for good reason.  Utility cutting has created a safety hazard in every street tree on the north side of St. Paul’s Street, a lower/middle income area.  The big wounds created by utility cuts are far outside what Duke Energy is allowed by the NC Utilities Commission, the National Electric Reliability Corporation, and ANSI A300 Tree Care Standards.

Trees and Social Justice in Durham NC

St. Paul’s Street is one block long.  Half of its residents are renters.   This case study shows the effect of the excessive cutting of street trees on the middle/lower economic stratum.   It is harder on these citizens than it is on folks with larger yards and more money to spend on restorative pruning and other treatments that would lessen the risk from Moderate to Low.

After one whole tree failed, and a large, imbalanced limb broke off, the residents of St. Paul’s sent a petition to Duke Energy and the City, and met with representatives.  Since that time, more substandard utility cutting has substantially increased the risk posed to these people and their homes.

Putting NERC to Work: Standard Utility Pruning

Trees under transmission lines get pruned.  Like the old days  By the books:


Branch tips were sizzling in contact with the transmission wires when the wind blew.

Metasequoia, bought for $1500 and planted 18 years before.  Owner chose not to allow utility to remove it.  He hired an arboristt.  The arborist pruned the tree.










After pruning, south view.






After pruning, looking up!






IMG_2582Some branches remained under the lines.







Sealing the 4″ cut on top.




IMG_2577Reducing sprawl reduces sway.






449Pruned to allow 10′ sag, 5′ sway.






IMG_4055Interpreting the A300- and NERC-compliant pruning process for the utility’s attorney.